Wednesday, March 23, 2011

What is TIME?

 "Time… is what keeps everything from happening at once"- Ray Cummings
Time is a part of the measuring system used to sequence events, to compare the durations of events and the intervals between them, and to quantify rates of change such as the motions of objects. Time has been a major subject of religionphilosophy, and science, but defining it in a non-controversial manner applicable to all fields of study has consistently eluded the greatest scholars.
Time is part of the fundamental structure of the universe, a dimensionin which events occur in sequenceSir Isaac Newton subscribed to this realist view, and hence it is sometimes referred to as Newtonian time.Time travel, in this view, becomes a possibility as other "times" persist like frames of a film strip, spread out across the time line. The opposing view is that time does not refer to any kind of "container" that events and objects "move through", nor to any entity that "flows", but that it is instead part of a fundamental intellectual structure (together with space and number) within which humans sequence and compare events.


In 5th century BC GreeceAntiphon the Sophist, in a fragment preserved from his chief work On Truth held that: "Time is not a reality (hypostasis), but a concept (no√™ma) or a measure (metron)."Parmenides went further, maintaining that time, motion, and change were illusions, leading to the paradoxes of his follower Zeno.[35] Time as illusion is also a common theme in Buddhist thought,and some modern philosophers have carried on with this theme. J. M. E. McTaggart's 1908 The Unreality of Time, for example, argues that time is unreal 
However, these arguments often center around what it means for something to be "real". Modern physicists generally consider time to be as "real" as space, though others such as Julian Barbour in his book The End of Time, argue that quantum equations of the universe take their true form when expressed in the timeless configuration spacerealm containing every possible "Now" or momentary configuration of the universe, which he terms 'platonia'

Classical mechanics

In classical mechanics, Newton's concept of "relative, apparent, and common time" can be used in the formulation of a prescription for the synchronization of clocks. Events seen by two different observers in motion relative to each other produce a mathematical concept of time that works pretty well for describing the everyday phenomena of most people's experience.

Time has historically been closely related with space, the two together comprising spacetime in Einstein's special relativity and general relativity. According to these theories, the concept of time depends on the spatial reference frame of the observer, and the human perception as well as the measurement by instruments such as clocks are different for observers in relative motion. The past is the set of events that can send light signals to the observer; the future is the set of events to which the observer can send light signals.
In physicsspacetime (or space–timespace time) is any mathematical model that combines space and time into a single continuum. Spacetime is usually interpreted with space as being three-dimensional and time playing the role of a fourth dimension that is of a different sort from the spatial dimensions. According to certain Euclidean space perceptions, the universe has three dimensions of space and one dimension of time. By combining space and time into a single manifold, physicists have significantly simplified a large number of physical theories, as well as described in a more uniform way the workings of the universe at both the supergalactic and subatomic levels.
In classical mechanics, the use of Euclidean space instead of spacetime is appropriate, as time is treated as universal and constant, being independent of the state of motion of an observer. In relativistic contexts, however, time cannot be separated from the three dimensions of space, because the observed rate at which time passes for an object depends on the object's velocity relative to the observer and also on the strength of intense gravitational fields, which can slow the passage of time.
The concept of spacetime combines space and time to a single abstract "space", for which a unified coordinate system is chosen. Typically three spatial dimensions (length, width, height), and one temporal dimension (time) are required. Dimensions are independent components of a coordinate grid needed to locate a point in a certain defined "space". For example, on the globe the latitude andlongitude are two independent coordinates which together uniquely determine a location. In spacetime, a coordinate grid that spans the 3+1 dimensions locates events (rather than just points in space), i.e. time is added as another dimension to the coordinate grid. This way the coordinates specify where and when events occur. However, the unified nature of spacetime and the freedom of coordinate choice it allows imply that to express the temporal coordinate in one coordinate system requires both temporal and spatial coordinates in another coordinate system. Unlike in normal spatial coordinates, there are still restrictions for how measurements can be made spatially and temporally (see Spacetime intervals). These restrictions correspond roughly to a particular mathematical modelwhich differs from Euclidean space in its manifest symmetry.
Until the beginning of the 20th century, time was believed to be independent of motion, progressing at a fixed rate in all reference frames; however, later experiments revealed that time slowed down at higher speeds of the reference frame relative to another reference frame (with such slowing called "time dilation" explained in the theory of "special relativity" ). Many experiments have confirmed time dilation, such as atomic clocks onboard a Space Shuttle running slower than synchronized Earth-bound inertial clocks and the relativistic decay of muons from cosmic ray showers. The duration of time can therefore vary for various events and various reference frames. When dimensions are understood as mere components of the grid system, rather than physical attributes of space, it is easier to understand the alternate dimensional views as being simply the result of coordinate transformations.
The term spacetime has taken on a generalized meaning beyond treating spacetime events with the normal 3+1 dimensions. It is really the combination of space and time. Other proposed spacetime theories include additional dimensions—normally spatial but there exist some speculative theories that include additional temporal dimensions and even some that include dimensions that are neither temporal nor spatial. How many dimensions are needed to describe the universe is still an open question. Speculative theories such as string theory predict 10 or 26 dimensions (with M-theorypredicting 11 dimensions: 10 spatial and 1 temporal), but the existence of more than four dimensions would only appear to make a difference at the subatomic level.
The general definition of time in physics usually refers to Spacetime which can be measured in light years.
We shall discuss next of Time dilation.
A. Einstein, H. A. Lorentz, H. Weyl, H. Minkowski, The Principle of Relativity
Ghandchi, Sam : Editor/Publisher (2004-01-16). "Space and New Thinking"

Thursday, March 17, 2011

The Risks of Nuclear Radiation (ieee spectrum)

On Monday, 14 March, radiation levels at the Fukushima nuclear plants reported rose to 400 millisieverts but then quickly declined. In less than 24 hours, the levels were below 1 mSv. What exactly does that mean? How much is safe, and for how long? What levels should the residents of the town of Okuma and the rest of the Futaba District be worried about? What about the radiation risks to those downwind? Do they extend all the way to Hawaii and the North American west coast?
Watch the video from ieee spectrum
Click Here to Watch

IPv4 Internet Addresses Run Out

 As on February 3, 2011, the central pool of IPv4 addresses has been officially exhausted after the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) assigned the rest of the blocks of address space.
APNIC, which provides internet addressing services to the Asia Pacific region, got in two /8s (33 million addresses) Tuesday which caused them to give out the last five /8s to Regional Internet Registries. ISPs and businesses are quickly using up any and all the IPv4 addresses APNIC is able to give out, so companies in the area are expected to be first in line to be affected by the IPv4 addresses running out.
 The company that tracks the allocation of IPv4 stated 1 February as X-Day or exhaustion day, which brought to mind pictures of Mad Max-style fights over the rest of the available IPv4 addresses.
Actually, this was predicted a long time ago but had stayed a distant prospect until recently due to the use of Network Address Translation (NAT) technology, which meant banks of business PCs all sat behind small ranges of IP addresses. A number of units of internet real estate are still sparingly used, with only about 14 per cent being used, said a study by the University of Southern California, was published on Tuesday.
 John Heidemann, leader of a team at the USC Viterbi School of Engineering Information Sciences Institute that carried out the study, said that as soon as the rest of the addresses are gone, there will be pressure to improve the use of them and eventually they will trade areas that are underused.
 However, doing that won’t be an easy task. But in the meantime, a lot of companies will survive by layering NAT devices, but in the long term the solution is to move to IPv6, which is the next generation Internet Protocol.
 Better usage, trading, and other strategies can help get back “twice or four times current usage” of IPv4, says Heidemann, who admitted that trading their way out of trouble will only help for a short period of time. He added that the requests for addresses is twice as much every year, so trading will only help for two years.
 IPv6 will give quite a bit more address space but even though it’s been available for 10 years, many networks don’t support it. If that doesn’t change soon the interweb will become fragmented sometime in the 21st century equivalent of a canals and railways transport system.

Sunday, March 13, 2011

IEEE India Industry Day 2011

A grand conference was held at the Chancery Pavilion on 10th and 11th of March, where the students got a chance to meet the Industries of India. The event was a great source of exposure for the students. Eminent persoalities like Dr. Howard Michel - Vice President-IEEE, Dr. Byeong Gi Lee - IEEE Com Soc President, Prof. Jhing-fa Wan - IEEE R10 Industry Liasion and Companies like Texas Instrumnets, IBM, TCS, Encore Technologies, HUWAIE etc. participated in the conference.

The discussion was basically on "Technology Challenges and Opportunities for Enhancing Quality of Life in India"

"India is a great country with great problems; every problem is an opportunity to the engineers" - Dr. Faqir Chand Kohli

The Hotel Chancery Pavilion

At the conference

Delegates from MES College of Engineering

In Smart Energy session Prof. AK Sinha, IITK emphasized the need of a smart power grid in the country and also explained the Phase Measurement Unit along with the normal SCADA  thus allowing easier and accurate measurement of the consumption.

In the consumer electronics Vinay Deshpande (Encore Software) emphasized the need for engineers to come forward for reducing the price of Electronic goods ithout compromising of Quality.
Prof. H S Jamgandi, CEDT, IISc. called for the need of the stuents to come forth to take risks and start up for innovations during their career. If a person in the west could create a Facebook due to a failure in life, Why not Indians?

In the banquet session Mr. Latif Ladid held a session on IPv6 protocol in Indian scenario and stated that the shift has become an urgent necessity.

In the wireless and Broadband session Mr. Asit Kadyan - DOT suggested that the Engineers should look forward to satisfy their basic amenities before introducing the latest technologies.
MESCE with Howard Michel

Tuesday, March 8, 2011

An initiative in BELBIC system.

Brain Emotion Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC), a system proposed by a renowned iranian scientist Caro Lucas has been selected as the topic for the mini projects under the guidance of Prof. Edet Bijoy. The work is in the beginning stages. Updates are to come up soon.

Our Work in Digital Audio Effects: Analysis of Digital Audio Effects Using Simulink and C6713 DSK

The work was presented at NCOIET'11 at Kongu Engineering College , Erode.
The entire work was done in the DSP lab of MESCE under the complete guidance of Prof. Edet Bijoy, Dept. of ECE.
Abstract: This paper shows the implementation of the echo and reverberation effects using the TI’s C6713 DSK. The effects are simulated using Simulink. Those simulation models are used to generate the DSP code for the real-time implementation. Echo and Reverberation are two of the simplest applications of Digital Signal Processing. Artificial Reverberation is one of the most interesting DSP applications in music preparation. If the
individual channels are simply added together, the resulting piece sounds frail and diluted, much as if the musicians were playing outdoors. This is because listeners are greatly influenced by the echo or reverberation content of the music, which is usually minimized in the sound studio. DSP allows artificial echoes and reverberation to be added during mix down to simulate various deal listening environments. Echoes with delays of a few hundred milliseconds give the impression of cathedral like locations. Adding echoes with delays of 10-20 milliseconds provide the perception of more modest size listening rooms.

Keywords- echo, reverberation, simulink, C6713 DSK.

Monday, March 7, 2011

Cynthia Breazeal: The rise of personal robots | Video on

Cynthia Breazeal: The rise of personal robots | Video on

What is Free Software?


Welcome one and all

An initiative to share whatever little I've come across in the world of technology.

I would like to give a brief account of a few of the subjects that would be discussed here.I believed technology and knowledge is to be shared for the welfare of humanity and thus it would advance. There would be three types of posts.

  1.  News from MESCE - It includes information regarding the technical activities in the college
  2.  My interest - It would be purely on Signal Processing and soft computing and of course on Free source activites ie. FREEDOM.
  3.  Informative - Would be based on articles in ieee spectrum and research news from the MIT

    All your suggestions and comments are always welcomed